From the Orthodox Study Bible (Old Testament): Typology is the interpretation of certain historical events occurring in the Old Testament as “types” that prefigure events to be fulfilled through the Incarnation of the Son of God, and in His life and ministry as confirmed in the New Testament. In each case, the type – the first event – is linked to its corresponding future event, called the “antitype.” It is a relationship that begins with a promise and ends with a fulfillment of Christ. St. … [Read more...]

Types of Mary in the Old Testament

From the Orthodox Study Bible (Old Testament): Types of both Christ and Mary, His Mother, fill the Old Testament. Indeed, most of the Old Testament types of Mary – a natural consequence of her essential role in the Incarnation of her Son, Jesus Christ – reveal the awesome marvel of her womb which contained the almighty God. Referring to Genesis 2:9, the hymnography of the Church sees the garden of Eden as a type of Mary: “Rejoice, . . . O living Paradise, having the Lord, the Tree of Life, in … [Read more...]

Theophanies of Christ

THREE THEOPHANIES OF CHRIST An often cited theophany of Christ occurs in the visit of the “three men” to Abraham and Sarah in Genesis 18:1-16: “Then God appeared to him at the oak of Mamre” (v. 1). Though three men are there, Abraham addresses them in the singular, “Lord.” He responds in the singular (vv. 9-15). As St. Ephraim the Syrian says, “Therefore the Lord . . . now appeared to Abraham clearly in one of the three.” The three are generally considered to be Christ the Lord, along with two … [Read more...]

The Tabernacle

From the Orthodox Study Bible (Old Testament): On Mt. Sinai Moses received not only the Ten Commandments, but also precise and detailed instructions for building the tabernacle – a moveable tent – where God met the assembly of the people Israel (Ex 25:1-27:21). Consequently, the tabernacle is built according to the divine blueprints (Ex 35:4-40:33). Here God’s Presence, His Glory, will be made manifest through the shining cloud filling the holy place (Ex 40:34-38). The importance of God’s … [Read more...]

The Sabbath Day, Sunday, and the Eighth Day

From the Orthodox Study Bible (Old Testament): THE SABBATH DAY When the Lord commanded the Hebrews, in the fourth of the Ten Commandments, to “Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy,” He also gave them the reason: “For in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea, and everything in them, and rested on the seventh day. Therefore, the Lord blessed the Sabbath day and hallowed it” (Ex 20:8, 11; cf. Gn 2:1-3). When Moses restated the Ten Commandments in Deuteronomy 5, he added another … [Read more...]

The Prophets

From the Orthodox Study Bible (Old Testament): The holy Prophets of Israel played a unique and critical role in their society. They repeatedly called the people back to their commitment to obey and worship only the one true God; they warned of foreign invasions; they protested against social and economic injustice; and they even rebuked kings face to face for their sinfulness (2Kg 12:1-15; 3Kg 18:17, 18; 20:1-29; 2Ch 12:1-8; 16:7-10). In times of crisis they were consulted by kings to discern … [Read more...]

The Priesthood, Hebrew and Christian

From the Orthodox Study Bible (Old Testament): OLD TESTAMENT PRIESTS The Hebrew word for “priest” is kohen. He is the Levite who stood as intercessor for the people before God. Old Testament priests offered up gifts and sacrifices to the Lord on behalf of the people, that they might be reconciled to Him. The Lord directed Moses to construct the tabernacle (Ex 25:1-27:21). Then He established a permanent, hereditary priesthood, beginning with Moses’ brother Aaron and continuing through … [Read more...]