The Holy Trinity

From the Orthodox Study Bible (Old Testament): The Holy Trinity is revealed both in the Old Testament and in the New Testament. In the Old Testament, the trinity is revealed in subtle ways; in the New Testament, the Trinity is revealed fully and plainly, beginning at the Baptism of our Lord. The Holy Trinity is one God in three Persons, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. These Persons are distinct, but not separate, and are not three gods. They are One God because They are one in essence or … [Read more...]

The Grace of Christ and the Law of Moses

From the Orthodox Study Bible (Old Testament): The Apostle John wrote, “The law was given through Moses, but grace and truth came through Jesus Christ” (Jn 1:17). The grace of Christ and the Law of Moses are complementary, not contradictory. The following helps explain both. FRIENDSHIP BETWEEN CHRIST AND MOSES Christ and Moses were friends and conversed as friends. The pre-incarnate Christ gave Moses the Law; in turn, Moses gave it to Israel (Ex 20:1-26). As the Lawgiver, Christ, not Moses, … [Read more...]

The Feast of Weeks – Pentecost

From the Orthodox Study Bible (Old Testament): The Feast of Weeks was the festival celebrated at the beginning of the grain harvest (Ex 34:22). This was the feast at which the Hebrews offered their firstfruits of the harvest to the Lord at the tabernacle. It was one of the three major Jewish feasts, along with the Passover and the feast of Tabernacles (see Ex 23:14-17; 34:18-23; Dt 16:1-17). According to Leviticus 23:15, 16, the Feast was celebrated for seven consecutive weeks beginning “the … [Read more...]

Saints of the Old Testament

From the Orthodox Study Bible (Old Testament): Immediately after quoting the Lord’s proclamation to Moses, “I am the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob,” Jesus asserts, “God is not the God of the dead, but of the living” (Mt 22:32). Thus He affirms that the great patriarchs of the Old Testament still live, as do all the righteous men and women of old who lived in anticipation of the coming Messiah. Hebrews 11 reviews the wonderful deeds of many of these Old Testament saints, … [Read more...]


From the Orthodox Study Bible (Old Testament): In the Book of Leviticus and detailed further in Deuteronomy 12-26, the Lord commands Moses to institute a comprehensive system of ritual sacrifices to be offered by the priests on behalf of the people of God, thus giving the Hebrews a means to be reconciled with God and to restore harmony amongst themselves, relationships disrupted by sin. The word “sacrifice” means to make holy or sacred. These sacrifices and offerings – offered first at the … [Read more...]

Life after Death

From the Orthodox Study Bible (Old Testament): For the ancient Hebrews, death meant a return to the same earth from which all are taken: “For earth you are, and to the earth you shall return” (Gn 3:19; Job 7:21). Nevertheless, a general idea developed that the souls of the dead do continue, though only in a shadowy, semi-comatose kind of existence in a netherworld called sheol, or Hades (Gn 37:34, 35; Pss 114:3, 138:8; Is 14:9-11), a land of “oblivion” (Ps 87:10-12; Job 14:18-22). In sheol – the … [Read more...]

Jesus Christ: Prophet, Priest, and King

From the Orthodox Study Bible (Old Testament): Throughout the Old Testament, God raised up prophets, priests, and kings from among His chosen people to serve and lead Israel. Not only did these servants minister in their own right, many prefigured the coming of Christ our God, the promised Prophet, Priest, and King. PROPHET Deuteronomy 18:15-19 foreshadows Christ as the promised Prophet. The Lord speaks to Moses: “I will raise up for them a Prophet like you from among their brethren, and I … [Read more...]