From the Orthodox Study Bible (Old Testament): Typology is the interpretation of certain historical events occurring in the Old Testament as “types” that prefigure events to be fulfilled through the Incarnation of the Son of God, and in His life and ministry as confirmed in the New Testament. In each case, the type – the first event – is linked to its corresponding future event, called the “antitype.” It is a relationship that begins with a promise and ends with a fulfillment of Christ. St. … [Read more...]

The Prophets

From the Orthodox Study Bible (Old Testament): The holy Prophets of Israel played a unique and critical role in their society. They repeatedly called the people back to their commitment to obey and worship only the one true God; they warned of foreign invasions; they protested against social and economic injustice; and they even rebuked kings face to face for their sinfulness (2Kg 12:1-15; 3Kg 18:17, 18; 20:1-29; 2Ch 12:1-8; 16:7-10). In times of crisis they were consulted by kings to discern … [Read more...]

Apocalyptic Literature

From the Orthodox Study Bible (Old Testament): Within Holy Scripture there are certain visionary, prophetic writings that are specifically seen as revelations because they reveal something about the last day, or end times. These writings within Holy Scripture are part of a larger group of works known as apocalyptic literature (from a Greek word meaning “to uncover” or “unveil”). From about 250 BC to AD 200, there were some thirty to forty such works circulating within the Jewish and early … [Read more...]

The Sermon on the Mount

In the Sermon on the Mount (Matt. 5-7), Jesus introduces the kind of life those who seek the Kingdom of God must lead.  His homily could properly be called, “The Righteousness of the Kingdom.”  It can be divided into several sections. (1)  The Beatitudes (Matt. 5:1-16): The sermon begins with the Beatitudes (the “blessings”), describing the joys of true discipleship, the blessed way of life.  The people of God await the rewards of the promises Jesus makes. (2)  The New Covenant (Matt. … [Read more...]

The Law

From the Orthodox Study Bible: One key to understanding Romans is to properly distinguish between the several ways Paul uses the word “law” in this epistle. (1) The Mosaic Law (Rom 2:12, 13) was written by God on tablets of stone (2 Cor. 3:3, 7) and given to the Jews through Moses. This Law reveals God’s righteousness to prepare men for the Messiah and for God’s grace. When Paul speaks of “the law” he is most often referring to the Mosaic Law. The Law is good, but cannot be kept. It … [Read more...]


From the Orthodox Study Bible: Parables are stories in word-pictures, revealing spiritual truth. The Hebrew and Aramaic words for parable also mean “allegory,” “riddle,” or “proverb.” The Scriptures, especially the Gospels, are filled with parables--images drawn from daily life in the world to represent and communicate the deep things of God. Parables give us glimpses of Him whose thoughts are not our thoughts and whose ways are not our ways (Is. 55:8, 9). The truth communicated by Jesus’ … [Read more...]